Glossary of Shipping Terms

- A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

LOWER DECK
The compartment below the Main Deck (also synonymous with lower hold and lower lobe).

LPG
liquified petroleum gas.

LST
local sidereal time.

LT HO
light house.

LT V
light vessel.

LT.
light.

LW
low water.

LWD
low water datum.

LWI
low water interval; mean low water lunitidal interval.

LWQ
tropic low water inequality.

L
difference of latitude; logarithm, logarithmic.

L
latitude; lower limb correction for moon.

L.FL.
long flashing.

L/C
Abbreviation for “Letter of Credit.”

LADEN
Loaded aboard a vessel.

LADING
Refers to the freight shipped; the contents of a shipment.

LAN
local apparent noon.

LANBY
large automatic navigational buoy.

LANDBRIDGE
Movement of cargo by water from one country through the port of another country, thence, using rail or truck, to an inland point in that country or to a third country. As example, a through movement of Asian cargo to Europe across North America.

LANDED COST
The total cost of a good to a buyer, including the cost of transportation.

LANDING CERTIFICATE
Certificate issued by consular officials of some importing countries at the point or place of export when the subject goods are exported under bond.

LANDING GEAR
a support fixed on the front part of a chassis (which is retractable); used to support the front end of a chassis when the tractor has been removed.

LANE METER
Primarily used to indicate the cargo capacity of a roll–on/roll–off car carrier. It is one meter of deck with a width of 2.5 to 3.0 meters.

LOOSE
Without packing.

LOP
line of position.

LOW–BOY
a trailer or semi–trailer with no sides and with the floor of the unit close to the ground.66

LASH
a maritime industry abbreviation for “Lighter Aboard Ship.” A specially constructed vessel equipped with an overhead crane for lifting specially designed barges and stowing them into cellular slots in an athwartship position.

LASH
lighter aboard ship.

LAT
local apparent time.

LAT.
latitude.

LAYCAN
Laydays/ Cancelling (date): Range of dates within the hire contract must start.

LCL
Abbreviation for “Less than Container Load.” The quantity of freight which is less than that required for the application of a container load rate. Loose Freight.

LD3
Lower deck type 3 container. This is the most commonly used container in passenger aircraft.

LESS THAN TRUCKLOAD
Also known as LTL or LCL.

LETTER OF CREDIT (LC)
a document, issued by a bank per instructions by a buyer of goods, authorizing the seller to draw a specified sum of money under specified terms, usually the receipt by the bank of certain documents within a given time. Some of the specific descriptions are:

LETTER OF INDEMNITY
in order to obtain the clean bill of lading, the shipper signs a letter of indemnity to the carrier on the basis of which may be obtained the clean bill of lading, although the dock or mate’s receipt showed that the shipment was damaged or in bad condition.

LF
low frequency.

LHA
local hour angle.

LHW
lower high water.

LHWI
lower high water interval.

LICENSES–
Some governments require certain commodities to be licensed prior to exporta­tion or importation. Clauses attesting to compliance are often required on the B/L. – Various types issued for export (general, validated) and import as mandated by government(s).

LIEN
a legal claim upon goods for the satisfaction of some debt or duty.

LIGHTENING
a vessel discharges part of its cargo at anchor into a lighter to reduce the vessel’s draft so it can then get alongside a pier.

LIGHTER
an open or covered barge towed by a tugboat and used mainly in harbors and inland waterways to carry cargo to/from alongside a vessel.

LIGHTERAGE
Refers to carriage of goods by lighter and the charge assessed there from.64

LINE–HAUL
Transportation from one city to another as differentiated from local switching service.

LINER
a vessel advertising sailings on a specified trade route on a regular basis. It is not necessary that every named port be called on every voyage.

LIQUIDATED DAMAGES
The penalty a seller must pay if the construction project does not meet contractual standards or dead­lines.

LIST
The amount in degrees that a vessel tilts from the vertical.

LITER
1.06 liquid U.S. quarts or 33.9 fluid ounces.

LL
lower limb.

LLOYDS’
Registry An organization maintained for the surveying and classing of ships so that insurance underwriters and others may know the quality and condition of the vessels offered for insurance or employment.

LLW
lower low water.

LLWD
lower low water datum.

LLWI
lower low water interval.

LM
middle latitude; mean latitude.

LMT
local mean time.

LNB
large navigational buoy.

LNG
(Liquefied Natural Gas) Natural gas will liquefy at a temperature of approximately -259 F or -160 C at atmospheric pressure. One cubic foot of liquefied gas will expand to approximately 600 cubic feet of gas at atmospheric pressure.

LNG
liquified natural gas.

LOCAL CARGO
Cargo delivered to/from the carrier where origin/destination of the cargo is in the local area.

LOG
logarithm, logarithmic.

LOG10
common logarithm (to the base 10).

LOGE
natural logarithm (to the base e).

LONG FORM B/L
B/L form with all Terms & Conditions written on it. Most B/L’s are short form which incorporate the long form clauses by reference.

LONG TON
2,240 pounds

LONG.
longitude.

LONGSHOREMAN
Individual employed in a port to load and unload ships.

LNGC
(LNG Carrier) An ocean-going ship specially constructed to carry LNG in tanks at 160 C. Current average carrying capacity of LNGs is 125,000 cubic metres. Many LNGCs presently under construction or on order are in the 210,000 – 215,000 cubic metre range.

LOAD LINE
The waterline corresponding to the maximum draft to which a vessel is permitted to load, either by freeboard regulations, the conditions of classification, or the conditions of service. See also Plimsoll Mark.