Glossary of Shipping Terms

- A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

S
sea-air temperature difference correction;slow; south; set; speed; sand.

S
second(s).

S/D
Abbreviation for: – Sight draft.– Sea damage.

SAFE PORT ACT
is the Security and Accountability For Every Port Act of 2006 which is an Act of Congress in the United States that covers port security.

SALM
single anchor leg mooring.

SAM
system area monitor.

SANCTION
An embargo imposed by a Government against another country.

SAR
search and rescue.

SART
search and rescue radar transponder.

SBM
single buoy mooring.

SCAC
Code See Owner Code.

SCHEDULE
The Statistical Classification of Domestic and Foreign Commodities Exported from the United States.

SD
semidiameter; sounding doubtful.

SEA WAYBILL
Document indicating the goods were loaded onboard when a document of title (b/L) is not needed. Typically used when a company is shipping goods to itself.

SEA–BEE VESSELS
Ocean vessels constructed with heavy–duty submersible hydraulic lift or elevator system at the stern of the vessel. The Sea–Bee system facilitates forward transfer and positioning of barges. Sea–Bee barges are larger than LASH barges. The Sea–Bee system is no longer used.

SEAWAYMAX VESSEL
The largest vessel that can transit the locks of the St. Lawrence Seaway. Length is 226 meters (740 feet); Beam is 24 meters (78 feet); Draft is 7.92 meters (26 feet).

SEAWORTHINESS
The fitness of a vessel for its intended use.

SEC
sec secant.

SEC.
sec. second, seconds.

SECURE FREIGHT INITIATIVE (SFI)
It is a key provision of the SAFE Port Act of 2006 and is part of the International Container Security scanning project. It builds on its current partnership between the Container Security Initiative and the Megaports Initiative. It expands the use of scanning and imaging equipment to examine more U.S. bound containers, not just those determined to be high risk.

SECURITY LEVEL 1
is the level for which minimum appropriate protective security measures shall be maintained at all times.

SECURITY LEVEL 2
is the level for which appropriate additional protective security measures shall be maintained for a period of time as a result of heightened risk of a security incident.

SECURITY LEVEL 3
is the level for which further specific protective security measures shall be maintained for a limited period of time when a security incident is probable or imminent, although it may not be possible to identify the specific target.

SED U.S. COMMERCE DEPARTMENT DOCUMENT
“Shipper’s Export Declaration.”

SEMIDUR.
semiduration.

SENC
system electronic navigation chart.

SERVICE
Service a string of vessels which makes a particular voyage and serves a particular market.

SES
ship earth station.

SF
Secondary Phase Factor.

SH
ship’s head (heading).

SHA
sidereal hour angle.

SHEX
Saturday and Holidays Excluded.

SHF
super high frequency.

SHINC
Saturday and Holidays Included.

SHIP A
vessel of considerable size for deep-water navigation. (2) A sailing vessel having three or more square-rigged masts.

SERVICE CONTRACT
as provided in the Shipping Act of 1984, a contract between a shipper (or a shippers association) and an ocean common carrier (or conference) in which the shipper makes a commitment to provide a cer­tain minimum quantity of cargo or freight revenue over a fixed time period, and the ocean common carrier or conference commits to a certain rate or rate schedule as well as a defined service level (such as assured space, transit time, port rotation or similar service features). The contract may also specify provisions in the event of nonperformance on the part of either party.

SHIP CHANDLER
an individual or company selling equipment and supplies for ships.

SHIP DEMURRAGE
a charge for delaying a steamer beyond a stipulated period.

SHIP LOAD
the amount of cargo a ship carries or is able to carry. See also “Full Shipload Lot” and “Full and Down.”

SHIP SECURITY OFFICER
is the person on board the vessel, accountable to the master, designated by the Company as respon­sible for the security of the ship, including implementation and maintenance of the ship security plan and for the liaison with the company security officer and the port facility security officers.

SHIP SECURITY PLAN
is a plan developed to ensure the application of measures on board the ship and designed to protect persons on board, cargo, cargo transport units, ship’s stores or the ship from the risks of a security incident.

SHIP TYPES - BARGE CARRIERS
• Ships designed to carry barges; some are fitted to act as full container­ships and can carry a varying number of barges and containers at the same time. At pres­ent this class includes two types of vessels LASH and Sea-Bee.

SHIP TYPES
Ship Types - Bulk Carriers: All vessels designed to carry bulk homogeneous cargo without mark and count such as grain, fertilizers, ore, and oil.

SHIP TYPES
Ship Types - Combination Passenger and Cargo Vessels: Ships with a capacity for 13 or more pas­sengers and any form of cargo or freight.

SHIP TYPES
Ship Types - Freighters: Breakbulk vessels both refrigerated and unrefrigerated, containerships, partial containerships, roll-on/roll-off vessels, and barge carriers. A general cargo vessel de­signed to carry heterogeneous mark and count cargoes.

SHIP TYPES
Ship Types - Full Containerships: Ships equipped with permanent container cells, with little or no space for other types of cargo.

SHIP TYPES
Ship Types - General Cargo Carriers: Breakbulk freighters, car carriers, cattle carriers, pallet carriers and timber carriers. A vessel designed to carry heterogeneous mark and count cargoes.

SHIP TYPES
Ship Types - Partial Containerships: • Multipurpose containerships where one or more but not all compartments are fitted with permanent container cells. Remaining compartments are used for other types of cargo.

SHIP TYPES
Ship Types - Roll-on/Roll-off vessels: • Ships specially designed to carry wheeled containers or trailers using interior ramps. Includes all forms of car and truck carriers.

SHIP TYPES
Ship Types - Tankers: • Ships fitted with tanks to carry liquid bulk cargo such as crude petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, Liquefied gasses (LNG and LPG), wine, molasses, and similar product tankers.

SHIP; TYPES
ship; red; rocky; coast radio station.

SHIPS
ships and can carry a varying number of barges and containers at the same time. At pres­ent this class includes two types of vessels LASH and Sea–Bee.

SHORE
Shore a prop or support placed against or beneath anything to prevent sinking or sagging.

SHORT TERM B/L
Opposite of Long Form B/L, a B/L without the Terms & Conditions written on it. Also known as a Short Form B/L. The terms are incorporated by reference to the long form B/L.

SHORT TON (ST)
a weight unit of measure equal to 2,000 pounds.

SHIP’S
measure time onboard ship. One bell sounds for each half hour. One bell means 12:30, two bells mean 1:00, three bells mean 1:30, and so on until 4:00 (eight bells). At 4:30 the cycle begins again with one bell.

SHIP’S MANIFEST
a statement listing the particulars of all shipments loaded for a specified voyage.

SHIP’S TACKLE
All rigging, cranes, etc., utilized on a ship to load or unload cargo.

SHIPMENT THE TENDER
of one lot of cargo at one time from one shipper to one consignee on one bill of lading.

SHIPPER
The person or company who is usually the supplier or owner of commodities shipped. Also called Consignor.

SHIPPER’S EXPORT DECLARATION – SED
“Ex Dec” A joint Bureau of the Census’ International Trade Administration form used for compiling U.S. ex­ports. It is completed by a shipper and shows the value, weight, destination, etc., of export shipments as well as Schedule B commodity code.

SHIPPER’S INSTRUCTIONS SHIPPER’S COMMUNICATION(S)
to its agent and/or directly to the international water–carrier. Instructions may be varied, e.g., specific details/clauses to be printed on the B/L, directions for cargo pickup and delivery.

SHIPPER’S LETTER OF INSTRUCTIONS
for issuing an Air Waybill The document required by the carrier or freight forwarders to obtain (besides the data needed) autho­rization to issue and sign the air waybill in the name of the shipper.

SHIPPER’S LOAD & COUNT (SL&C)
Shipments loaded and sealed by shippers and not checked or verified by the carriers.

SHIPPERS ASSOCIATION
a non–profit entity that represents the interests of a number of shippers. The main focus of shippers associations is to pool the cargo volumes of members to leverage the most favorable service contract rate levels.

SHIPPING ACT OF 1916
The act of the U.S. Congress (1916) that created the U.S. Shipping Board to develop water transporta­tion, operate the merchant ships owned by the government, and regulate the water carriers engaged in commerce under the flag of the United States. As of June 18, 1984, applies only to domestic offshore ocean transport.

SHIPPING ACT OF 1984
Effective June 18, 1984, describes the law covering water transportation in the U.S. foreign trade.

SHIPPING ACT OF 1998
Amends the Act of 1984 to provide for confidential service contracts and other items.

SHIPPING MARK
The letters, numbers or other symbols placed on the outside of cargo to facilitate identification.

SHIPPING ORDER
Shipper’s instructions to carrier for forwarding goods; usually the triplicate copy of the bill of lading.

SHIPPING WEIGHT
Shipping weight represents the gross weight in kilograms of shipments, including the weight of moisture content, wrappings, crates, boxes, and containers (other than cargo vans and similar substantial outer containers).

SHIPS - BARGE CARRIERS
Ships designed to carry barges; some are fitted to act as full container­

SHIPS - BULK CARRIERS
All vessels designed to carry bulk homogeneous cargo without mark and count such as grain, fertilizers, ore, and oil.

SHIPS - FREIGHTERS
Breakbulk vessels both refrigerated and unrefrigerated, containerships, partial containerships, roll–on/roll–off vessels, and barge carriers. A general cargo vessel de­signed to carry heterogeneous mark and count cargoes.

SHIPS - FULL CONTAINERSHIPS:
Ships equipped with permanent container cells, with little or no space for other types of cargo.

SHIPS - GENERAL CARGO CARRIERS
Break bulk freighters, car carriers, cattle carriers, pallet carriers and timber carriers. A vessel designed to carry heterogeneous mark and count cargoes.

SHIPS - ROLL–ON/ROLL–OFF VESSELS:
Ships specially designed to carry wheeled containers or trail­ers using interior ramps.

SHIPS - PARTIAL CONTAINERSHIPS
Multipurpose containerships where one or more but not all compartments are fitted with permanent container cells. Remaining compartments are used for other types of cargo.

SHIPS -TANKERS:
Ships fitted with tanks to carry liquid bulk cargo such as: crude petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, Liquefied gasses (LNG and LPG), wine, molasses, and similar product tankers.

SHORT SEA SHIPPING – SSS (EUROPEAN-EU)
Short Sea Shipping means the movement of cargo by sea between ports situated in geographical Eu­rope or between those ports situated in non-European countries having a coastline on the enclosed seas bordering Europe (Baltic, Mediterranean and Black). It is a successful mode of transport in Eu­rope.

SHRINK WRAP
Polyethylene or similar substance heat–treated and shrunk into an envelope around several units, thereby securing them as a single pack for presentation or to secure units on a pallet.

SI
International System of Units.

SID
sudden ionospheric disturbance.

SIDE LOADER
a lift truck fitted with lifting attachments operating to one side for handling containers.

SIDE–DOOR CONTAINER
a container fitted with a rear door and a minimum of one side door.

SIGHT DRAFT
a draft payable upon presentation to the drawee.

SIGTTO
Society of International Gas Transport and Terminal Operators, an industry organization promoting the exchange of safety information concerning the processing, transporting and handling of liquefied gases.

SIN
sin sine.

SINS
Ships Inertial Navigation System.

SKIDS BATTENS
Skids Battens, or a series of parallel runners, fitted beneath boxes or packages to raise them clear of the floor to permit easy access of forklift blades or other handling equipment.

SL/W
SL/W Shippers load and count. All three clauses are used as needed on the bill of lading to exclude the carrier from liability when the cargo is loaded by the shipper.

SLD
sea level datum.

SLEEPERS LOADED
containers moving within the railroad system that are not clearly identified on any internally generated reports.

SLING
Sling a wire or rope contrivance placed around cargo and used to load or discharge it to/from a vessel.

SLIP
Slip a vessel’s berth between two piers.

SMG
speed made good.

SNR
signal-to-noise ratio.

SOA
speed of advance.

SOG
speed over ground.

SOLAS
Safety of Life at Sea Convention.

SP
spire; spherical.

SPA
Abbreviation for “Subject to Particular Average.” See also Particular Average.

SPA
sudden phase anomaly.

SPINE CAR
An articulated five–platform railcar. Used where height and weight restrictions limit the use of stack cars. It holds five 40–foot containers or combinations of 40– and 20–foot containers.

SPLIT B/L
One of two or more B/L’s which have been split from a single B/L.

SPM
single point mooring.

SPOTTING PLACING
a container where required to be loaded or unloaded.

SPREADER
a piece of equipment designed to lift containers by their corner castings.

SRM
speed of relative movement.

SS
signal station.

SSHEX
Abbreviation for Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays Excepted. Refers to loading and discharging of cargo as agreed to in the charter party. This indicates when time does not count in the calculation of demurrage and despatch.

STABILITY
The force that holds a vessel upright or returns it to upright position if keeled over. Weight in the lower hold increases stability. A vessel is stiff if it has high stability, tender if it has low stability. In a ship, stability is indicated by several characteristics. Initial stability is measured by the metacentric height; also known as “GM.” If GM is low, the vessel makes long slow rolls, and is considered tender. When GM is too high, the vessel is considered stiff, and may return violently to the upright position when rolling, with possible damage to cargo and injury to passengers and crew. Other stability consid­erations include the vessel’s range of stability, maximum righting arm, and the angle of heel at which the maximum righting arm occurs.

STACK CAR
An articulated five–platform rail car that allows containers to be double stacked. A typical stack car holds ten 40–foot equivalent units (FEU’s).

STACKTRAIN
A rail service whereby rail cars carry containers stacked two high on specially operated unit trains. Each train includes up to 35 articulated multi–platform cars. Each car is comprised of 5 well–type platforms upon which containers can be stacked. No chassis accompany containers.

STALE B/L
A late B/L; in banking, a B/L which has passed the time deadline of the Letter of Credit (L/C) and is void.

STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION (SIC)
a standard numerical code used by the U.S. Government to classify products and services.

STANDARD INTERNATIONAL TRADE CLASSIFICATION (SITC)
a standard numeric code developed by the United Nations to classify commodities used in interna­tional trade, based on a hierarchy.

STARBOARD
The right side of a ship when facing the bow.

STATUTE OF LIMITATION
a law limiting the time in which claims or suits may be instituted.

STC
Said to contain.

STCC
Abbreviation for “Standard Transportation Commodity Code.”

STEAMSHIP CONFERENCE
a group of vessel operators joined together for the purpose of establishing freight rates.

STEAMSHIP GUARANTEE
an indemnity issued to the carrier by a bank; protects the carrier against any possible losses or dam­ages arising from release of the merchandise to the receiving party. This instrument is usually issued when the bill of lading is lost or is not available.

STERN
The end of a vessel. Opposite of bow.

STEVEDORE INDIVIDUAL
or firm that employs longshoremen and who contracts to load or unload the ship.

STORE–DOOR PICK–UP DELIVERY
a complete package of pick up or delivery services performed by a carrier from origin to final con­sumption point.

STOWAGE
a marine term referring to loading freight into ships’ holds.

STRADDLE CARRIER MOBILE TRUCK
equipment with the capacity for lifting a container within its own framework.

STRAIGHT (CONSIGNMENT) B/L
Indicates the shipper will deliver the goods to the con­signee. It does not convey title (non–negotiable).Most often used when the goods have been pre–paid.

STRAIGHT BILL OF LADING
a non–negotiable bill of lading which states a specific identity to whom the goods should be deliv­ered. See Bill of Lading.

STRAIGHT:
A letter of credit that contains a limited engagement clause which states that the issuing bank promises to pay the beneficiary upon presentation of the required documents at its counters or the counters of the named bank.

STRIPPING
Removing cargo from a container (devanning).

STUFFING
Putting cargo into a container.

STW
Said to weigh.

SUB,
subm submerged.

SUBROGATE
To put in place of another; i.e., when an insurance company pays a claim it is placed in the same posi­tion as the payee with regard to any rights against others.

SUEZMAX TANKER
a tanker of 120,000 to 199,000dwt.

SUFFERANCE WHARF
a wharf licensed and attended by Customs authorities.

SUPPLY CHAIN
a logistical management system which integrates the sequence of activities from delivery of raw ma­terials to the manufacturer through to delivery of the finished product to the customer into measur­able components. “Just in Time” is a typical value–added example of supply chain management.

SURCHARGE
an extra or additional charge

SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD (STB)
The U.S. federal body charged with enforcing acts of the U.S. Congress that affect common carriers in interstate commerce. STB replaced the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) in 1997.

SURTAX
an additional extra tax.